The Disability/Mobility Challenge: Formulating Criteria for Testing Accessibility and Usability

a Curb Cut at an intersection
Susan L. Gerhart, Ph.D.
slger123 at gmail and on twitter
"As Your World Changes" blog
http://apodder.org/icst
Presentation for International conference on software Testing, Verification, Validation

My Goals

  1. More ICST professional expertise in accessibility practice
  2. Opportunities from assistive technologies and accessibility to ICST communities
  3. Synthesized practices, professionals, and technologies ala "curb cuts"
  4. Increased social awareness of possibilities in health care, aging and disabilities

Definitions

Demonstration Screen Reader "buying a book from Amazon.com"

Mp3 recording of Amazon book buying session Also "Lost in Amazon" session

Accessibility and Assistive Technology Scenarios -- Improving the World 2009-2015

The Renovated Web

20092015Responses
  • Trillions of messy, moldering web pages
  • W3c standards taking effect - ALT images, Headings, informative links,
  • DoJo accessible components
  • w3C business case mobility and accessibility similarity
  • Open accessibility industry on twitter, blogs
  • Validation from WebAim WAVE
  • Global open source free screen reader NVDA versus$1000 paid by tax $$
  • TTS (text industry
  • 70% unemployment for PwD, nil social services
  • NVDA has 80%, 5 M global users
  • 600 B web pages gone but not missed
  • TTS Voices in every application
  • Older and PwD citizens fully included in gov 2.0
  • 90% employment for blind, reduced SS costs
  • Web accessibility curriculum in CS
  • ICST defined formal testing regime for NVDA
  • NVDA-T instrumented for accessibility
  • Javascript and DoJo accessible widgets fully tested by ICST techniques
  • ICST experts improve validators
  • "Triage the Web" month removes 600B crappy web pages
  • MM Magic Metric classifies good, bad, unsure by agreement with experienced blind web users
  • Browsers have MM toolbar to rate page quality
  • ICST partners with w3C for curriculum to define "well-tested web page"

Better Reading for Everyone

20092015Response
  • Print disabled persons read and write by listening with TTS
  • XML-based DAISY standardizes flexible multimedia "digital talking books"
  • DAISY readers on PCs, mobile devices
  • Bookshare.org provides 50 K books, also periodicals, special ed texts
  • Microsoft provides free "save to daisy" WORD plug-in + Silverlight readers
  • DAISY overtakes PDF and Word for document formats
  • DAISY reader software in all mobile devices, phones, ...
  • Billions of WORD and other docs converted to more usable and persistent format
  • Medical etc. professionals share readings and records with clients
  • PC no longer required to read books, news, documents, etc.
  • After recovery.gov debacle, U.S. adopts DAISY as standard .
  • Estimated savings $1T over next 5 years because all government docs are readable by everybody
  • ICST test suite for XML parsers, tests all libraries for robustness, also DTB for well-formed ness
  • ICST interface research streamlines generators, readers, managers of DAISY documents
  • Accessibility now a focused requirement
  • ICST students excited about accessibility also test the Accessible Application suite of zip, audio, editors,...

Everything Talks Helpfully

20092015Response
  • Older "robotic" and modern "natural" voices are commodities ($30)
  • "Convert to MP3" available for TTS to players
  • Many models of voice enabled, menu-driven, no screen devices for microwave ovens, color tellers, ATM, voting, ...
  • Assistive technology industry surviving recession
  • All device processors have onboard TTS, speakers
  • All devices have speakable manuals, instructions, diagnostics
  • More sophisticated energy management, safety oversight, weather and traffic notifiers, etc. are ubiquitous
  • Cheaper TTS than displays saves $500B in electric grid overhaul
  • Medical devices are safer, easier to use, so save another $500B over next 5 years
  • ICST model and use case methodology adopted for all designs of menu-driven devices
  • State transition diagrams for menus fully tested by new patterns that users understand
  • Universal design incorporates talking devices into products, furniture, , etc. as esthetic and functional

How ICST community can Work with Accessibility

Technical Improvement

  1. Broaden design, test, verification, validation spaces to include accessibility from git-go
  2. Explore technologies voice enabled, menu driven, DAISY representations, accessible components, ...
  3. Develop test suites and practices for XML/DAISY, script/DoJo interactive web, accessible apps, menu-driven devices, embedded TTS, ...
  4. Help validator services improve
  5. Seek magic metric to renovate the web
  6. Incorporate accessibility as requirement in student projects, research tools, course management systems, intro programming languages

Social Improvement

  1. Think "curb cuts", remove divides of generations, physical and mental abilities, economics
  2. Talk to local disability service professionals and clients for awareness and projects
  3. Hold our profession accountable: acm/ieee, google, etc. all can do better
  4. Every person as PwD and economy require accessibility

References

  1. $6M against Target.com (You tube CBS News) by NFB (National Federation of Blind
  2. The Electronic Curb Principle
  3. Glenda Sims blog with CBS and NBC news faces of accessibility
  4. Setting up web testing using a screen reader
  5. W3c Accessibility Standards and Studies, e.g. Similar barriers, best practices from w3c, w3c validation tool list
  6. Opera MOMA project analyzing 2.5 M pages for structural properties
  7. Assistive technology and accessibility demos at Blind Cool Tech
  8. DoJo accessible AJAX components
  9. Semantic Data Extractor semantics for cnn.com
  10. WAVE from WebAim WAVE analysis for whitehouse.gov or WAVE analysis for recovery.gov
  11. Microsoft Word and DAISY plug-in announcement, Youtube video of visually impaired appeal, DAISY Digital talking book consortium
  12. Marco's Accessibility blog, discussing testing
  13. NVDA, non-visual desktop access, screen reader project
  14. "As Your World Changes" blog







EXTENDED Accessibility and Assistive Technology Scenarios -- Improving the World 2009-2015

The Renovated Web

20092015Responses
  • Trillions of messy, moldering web pages
  • recovery.gov and whitehouse.gov, LSAT, acm.org, ... accessibility turmoil
  • W3c standards taking effect - ALT images, Headings, informative links,
  • DoJo accessible components ready for active web
  • w3C business case for similar barriers, similar solutions for mobility and accessibility, e.g. color contrast
  • Accessibility gurus on blogs and twitter, SXSW
  • Validation from WebAim WAVE
  • Global open source free screen reader NVDA versus$1000 paid by tax $$
  • TTS (text to speech) industry noticed through Kindle protest
  • 70% unemployment for PwD, little social services off the rehab grid
  • NVDA has 80%, 5 M global users
  • TTS Voices abound at $10
  • Older and PwD citizens fully included in gov 2.0
  • 90% employment for blind, reduced SS costs
  • Web really works, every device
600 B web pages gone but not missed
  • Web accessibility curriculum in CS and IT departments
    • ICST groups brings formal testing regime to NVDA
      • Reduces errors, accelerates development
      • NVDA-T instrumented for accessibility
      • Mandatory for web development, listen like blind users
      • Simplicity of install, use, voices enables older and others off the rehab grid
      • Also a writing tool for style and checking
    • "Triage the Web" month removes 600B crappy web pages
      • Opera MOMA project analyzes 3M page structures, intriguing insights
      • MM Magic Metric classifies good, bad, unsure by agreement with experienced blind web users
      • Search engines and advertisers reward MM winners
      • Browsers have MM toolbar to rate and report page quality
    • Interactive web based on Javascript and DoJo accessible widgets fully tested by ICST techniques
    • ICST experts sort out and improve validators like WebAim WAVE
    • ICST community partners with w3C and web accessibility curriculum to define "well-tested web page"
    • Mobile developments drive improved accessibility and vice versa

    Better Reading for Everyone

    20092015Response
    • Print disabled persons read and write by listening to TTS
    • DAISY standard for flexible multimedia "digital talking books", based on XML
    • DAISY readers on PCs, mobile devices
    • Bookshare.org provides 50 K books, also periodicals via NFB
    • Special Ed uses DAISY for textbooks
    • Microsoft provides free "save to daisy" WORD plug-in + Silverlight readers
    • DAISY overtakes PDF and Word for document formats
    • DAISY reader software in all mobile devices, phones, etc. for versatile reading
    • Billions of WORD and other docs converted to more usable and persistent format
    • Medical etc. professionals share readings and records with clients
    • PC no longer required to read books, news, documents, etc.
    • After recovery.gov debacle, U.S. adopts DAISY as standard for all SS, etc.
    • Support groups convert websites to DTB for personal libraries
    • Estimated savings $1T over next 5 years because all government docs are readable by everybody
    • DAISY formats rescue newspapers, offer streams of journalism RSS feeds
    • Better interfaces of DAISY readers and writers accelerates market
    • Simpler, voice enabled, self-describing devices entice older and less able users because accessibility now a focused requiremen
    • ICST test suite for XML parsers, tests all libraries for robustness, also DTB for well-formedness
    • ICST interface research streamlines generators, readers, managers of DAISY documents
    • Accessibility now a focused requirement committed by computing profession instigated by ICST
    • ICST students excited about accessibility also test the Accessible Application suite of zip, audio editing, virus, magnifiers, etc.

    Everything Talks Helpfully

    20092015Response
    • Older "robotic" and modern "natural" voices are commodities ($30)
    • "Convert to MP3" available for TTS to players
    • Many models of voice enabled, menu-driven, no screen devices for microwave ovens, color tellers, ATM, voting, ...
    • Amazon Kindle let cat out of the bag for TTS requiring IP resolution
    • Marketplace of assistive devices: Levelstar Icon, Humanware Victor Reader, PlexTalk Pocket
    • All device processors have onboard TTS or recorded playback
    • All devices have speakable manuals, instructions, diagnostics
    • Screen displays are add-ons, basic models just talk
    • More sophisticated energy management, safety oversight, weather and traffic notifiers, etc. are ubiquitous
    • Cheaper TTS than displays saves $500B in electric grid overhaul
    • Medical devices are safer, easier to use, so save another $500B over next 5 years
    • Digital talking manuals, based on XML, tested for well-formedness -- ICST suites and practices
    • Models, use cases, state transition, user interaction patters converted to standard practice
    • ICST model and use case methodology adopted for all designs of menu-driven devices
    • State transition diagrams for menus fully tested by new patterns that users understand
    • Universal design incorporates talking devices into products, furniture, , etc. as esthetic and functional

    How ICST community can Work with Accessibility

    1. Think "curb cuts", remove divides of technology, generations, disabilities, services
    2. Broaden design, test, verification, validation spaces
    3. Incorporate technologies voice enabled, menu driven, DAISY representations, ...
    4. Develop test suites and practices for XML/DAISY, script/DoJo interactive web, accessible apps, menu-driven devices, embedded TTS, ...
    5. Help validators improve
    6. Seek magic metric to renovate the web
    7. Incorporate accessibility as requirement in student projects, research tools, course management systems, intro programming languages
    8. Talk to local disability service professionals and clients for awareness and projects
    9. Hold our profession accountable: acm/ieee, google, etc. all can do better
    10. Remember: you, your family, your economy require accessibility

    Framework for Assistive Technology and Accessibility

    FacetProducerReceiver
    Architecture PC+
    • MSAA accessibility interface
    • Speech Synthesizer, e.g. SAPI 5
    • Voice File, e.g. Neo speech Kate
    • Dictionary phonemes for words !!!
    • !!! Browser, e.g. Firefox
    • !!! Screen reader, e.g. NVDA
    • Interaction Vocabulary: h,k,l,i,g,b,...
    • Keyboard, NO mouse
    Industry
    • MSAA, Mac VoiceOver, Linux ORCA
    • Speech Vendors: Nuance, Neopspeech, nextup,...
    • Voice File, $30, Kate, Emily, Paul, Mike, ... +

      !!! Open source eSpeak, Festival
    • Java accessibility bridge
    • !!! Java, python, etc. libraries, e.g. XML
    • Browser, Mozilla, Opera
    • !!! DoJo accessible components,
    • Screen reader, JAWS ($1000), !!! NVDA (free) *
    • Rehab trainers, Disability Support
    • !!! Accessibility designers* on blogs and twitter
    • Web accessibility education
    • Standards: w3C, EU, ,...
    • !!! Validator services, e.g. WebAim WAVE
    • Advocacy: NFB, ACB, AFB
    Other
    • !!! Menu Driven, Voice Enabled, NO screen *
      • Instructions
      • Interactions
      • Readout
    • Phones + screen readers + OCR
    • !!! DAISY readers
      • XML parsed *
      • MS Word plug-in, other editors
    • !!! Accessible applications suite *
    • !!! Talking gadgets
      • Microwave ovens
      • Labelers and Finders, RFID
      • Bank tellers
      • Voting
      • Medical, e.g. glucose
      • Thermostats, security systems
    • Periodicals and Books
      • Bookshare 50k DAISY books
      • NYTimes, etc.
      • Economist, etc.
      • Special ed textbooks
    • !!! Financial Data and forms, taxes, SS, insurance, HIPAA, ...

    Testing Challenges

    1. Triage trillions of good/bad web pages
    2. NVDA global open source screen reader: formal testing + possible testing tool
    3. Testing interactive web pages, accessible widgets
    4. Test robustness of accessible apps suite
    5. Improve validation tools
    6. Testing methods for voice-enabled, menu-driven devices
    7. Test suite for XML parsers
    8. DAISY document generation and reading

    Triage the web

    What marks a good web page?

    1. Images have appropriate ALT descriptions
    2. Heading outline makes sense H1, H2, ..., lists are OL or ul,, tables are not for layout -- "semantics"
    3. Links describe destination and effects, no "click here" or opening windows
    4. Color is controlled and contrasts, including black background
    5. Form fields are labeled, including optional
    6. Dynamic page changes are told, including mistakes
    7. Work with java script and css as "progressive enhancement"
    NOTE: Improve usability for mobile devices as well as accessibility

    What's the metric?

    1. 80% agreement of "good" with PwD
    2. 80% agreement of "bad" for afflicted PwD
    3. Others require rework or have debatable trade-offs

    Benefits of Triage

    Model and test menu-driven, voiced interfaces

    Menus and State Machines

    Benefits of well-modeled spoken menus

    1. Work out of the box with no training
    2. Medical, energy management, safety, etc. devices are critical systems
    3. Improve quality of life and independence for aging and ill
    4. Accelerate marketplace

    Web pages are now applications to test

    Characteristics of testing active web pages

    Benefits of better tested web pages

    Improve Validation Tools

    Validator Tools and Services

    1. Semantic Data Extractor semantics for cnn.com
    2. WAVE from WebAim WAVE analysis for whitehouse.gov or WAVE analysis for recovery.gov

    Benefits of better validator's

    1. Do not fake accessibility by passing validation
    2. More explanations
    3. Perhaps build into a screen reader like NVDA

    More software to test

    NVDA, non visual desktop access open source

    Needs formal testing process, written in python and C++

    Accessible Apps Collection

    Test for robustness and fitness with screen readers -- greater quality and productivity for PwD

    XML Parsers, generators, for DAISY readers

    Great advances from better testing

    1. Processes: modeling, use cases, systematic testing in an informal, dynamic world (web)
    2. Triage to rejuvenate web
    3. Better testing on accessibility-critical software
    4. Accelerate Innovative usable voice-enabled devices
    5. Alternative documents based in DAISY/XML
    6. Open education and employment for talented developers
    7. Overcome fear of working with PwD, ignorance and negligence in our profession

      Where to Learn More

      1. Local disability services professional and clients
      2. Blogs and conferences reachable from twitter , e.g. SXSWcommunity, start with ...
      3. acm.org digital library and google scholar searches (although bad for usability)
      4. Rejuvenate your own websites
      5. Teach accessibility as a requirement, demand from students
      6. Join web accessibility education movement (Opera)
      7. Adopt a PwD to learn needs and technology options